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Territory of thrombosis in 30 patients with Antiphospholipid Syndrome
The Antiphospholipid Syndrome is an autoimmune condition characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis, pregnancy-related complications (miscarriage, pre-eclampsia,preterm delivery), and the presence of certain specific antibodies such as lupus anticoagulant, anti-ß2-glycoprotein-I or anti-cardiolipin. The group most affected by the disease is the young adults, besides being more prevalent in women. The diagnosis is based on one clinical event and two positive antidoby blood tests colected at least 3 months apart. Thrombosis is the most commum symptom, affecting over 55% of the pacients and the place where it occurs most are the lower limbs.
Materials and methods
The study aims to analyse the main type of thrombosis (arterial ou venous) and its most affected territory in 30 pacients diagnosed with Antiphospolipid Syndrome, considering their ages and gender, by a retrospective survey of medical records. The peripheral thrombosis were confirmed by doppler ultrassonography, the thrombosis of venous sinuses and strokes by an head CT and the pulmonary tromboembolism by an angiotomography.
In the group of patients, the mean age was 36, of which 70% were young (between 18 and 41 years) and 30% were in middle age (from 42 to 65 years).
Among the patients studied, the disease affected more women (80%) than men. In general, the main territories affected were the lower limbs (venous thrombosis - 46,6%), the venous sinuses (23,3%), and the brain (isquemic strokes - 20%), besides pulmonary tromboembolism, arterial thrombosis of lower limbs and portal vein thrombosis. Lower limb venous thrombosis was more prevalent in both sexes and regardless of age, followed by cerebral venous thrombosis in women (43,75%).
Although the disease is being recognized more frequently, due to the diversity of clinical and laboratorial presentations, its diagnosis can be a challenge, and therefore studies of most common clinical presentation and its prevalence in certain groups can provide early diagnosis and treatment. By the analysis of the results, it is possible to see the relation of lower limbs thrombosis as the main manifestation of the disease in the studied group, as suggested by the literature and its higher prevalence in women.
Helena Truppa Giunzioni, Vítor de Castro Grotti, Carolina Bonetto Nicolau, Waldenise Cossermelli